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Python beginner's eighth day ()

2022-01-30 02:39:42 Sue_ fifty-two

Python Advanced -- Document processing (IO technology )

A complete program generally includes data storage and reading ; In actual development, we often need external storage media ( Hard disk 、 Compact disc 、U Plate, etc. ) Reading data , Or store the data generated by the program in a file “ Persistence ” preservation .

Text files and binaries

  1. text file The text file stores ordinary “ character ” Text , The default is unicode Character set , You can use Notepad to open .
  2. Binary Binary files use the data content as “ byte ” For storage , Can't open with Notepad . The corresponding software must be used to decode ; Such as :MP4、Mp3、JPG、doc Documents, etc. .

File operation related modules

name explain
IO modular Input and output operations of file stream
OS modular Enter this operating system function , Including file operations
glob modular Find a file pathname that matches a specific rule
fnmatch modular Use modules to match file pathnames
fileinput modular Process multiple input files
filecmp modular For file comparison
cvs modular be used for cvs Document processing
pickle and cPickle For serialization and deserialization
xml package be used for XML Data processing
bz2、gzip、zipfile、zlib、tarfile For processing compressed and decompressed files ( Corresponding to different algorithms )

Create a file object open()

open() Function to create a file object , Basic grammar :

open( file name [, Open mode ])
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If it's just the file name , Represents the file in the current directory . The file name can be entered in the full path, such as :D:\a\b.txt .

Open mode :

Pattern describe
r Reading mode
w Write mode , If the file does not exist, create ; Rewrite the new content if it exists
a Append mode . If the file does not exist, it will be created. Otherwise, the content will be added at the end of the file
b Binary mode ( Can be used in combination with other modes )
+ read 、 Write mode ( ditto )

Basic file writing and other operations

Three steps :

  1. Create a file object
  2. Write data
  3. Close file object

【 operation 】 Write data

#  Absolute path 
# file = open(
# "D:/  Advanced /day02 - Python Advanced /code/file.txt",
# "a",
# encoding="utf-8")
# a = " wuhu !!!"
# file.write(a)
# file.close()

#  Relative paths ( Need to change vscode To configure )
file = open("file.txt", "a", encoding="utf-8")
a = " wuhu !!!"
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Introduction to common codes

When operating Chinese , Will encounter garbled code problems . Coding relationships :

image-20211006164843561.png Chinese code scrambling

window The default operating system code is GBK,Linux The default operating system code is UTF-8. When we use open() when , What is called is the folder opened by the operating system , No default code is GBK.

write() / writeLines() Write data

write(a): Put the string a Write to a file writelines(b): Write the string list to the file , Do not add line breaks ( You can add ).

【 operation 】 test

f = open(r"file.txt", "w", encoding="utf-8")
s = ["sue\n", "Jason\n", "Eason\n", "Forrest\n"]
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result :file.txt

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close() Close file stream

The bottom layer of the file is controlled by the operating system , Therefore, to open the file object, you must first display the call close() Method to close the file object . When calling close() When the method is used , First, the buffer data will be written to the file ( It can also be called directly flush() Method ), Close the file again , Release file object .

To ensure that the open file object is closed properly , Generally combined with the exception mechanism finally perhaps with Keyword implementation can close open file objects in any case .

【 operation 】 Use exceptions and combine finally Make sure you close the file

    file = open(r"file.txt", "a", encoding="utf-8")
    str = "Sue, Great commander !!!\n"
except BaseException as e:
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with sentence ( Context management )

with keyword ( Context manager ) Context resources can be managed automatically , Jump out for whatever reason with modular , Can ensure that the file is closed normally , And it can automatically restore the scene when entering the code block after the code block is executed .

【 operation 】 test

arr = ["primary\n", "middle\n", "high\n"]
with open(r"file.txt", "a", encoding="utf-8") as file:
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with The opening and closing operations are carried out , We don't have to close it ourselves

Text file reading

There are three general methods for reading files :

  1. read([size]) Read... In a file size Characters , And return as a result . without size Parameters , Read the entire file . Read to the end of the file , Returns an empty string .
  2. readline() Read a line and return as a result . Read to the end of the file , Returns an empty string .
  3. readlines() In the text file , Each line is stored in the list as a string , Return to the list .

【 operation 】read() Method

with open(r"file.txt", "r", encoding="utf-8") as f:
    print( # sue,Jason,
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【 operation 】readline() Method

with open(r"file.txt", "r", encoding="utf-8") as f:
    print(f.readline())  # sue,Jason,Eason,Forrest,primary,middle,high
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【 operation 】readlines() Method

with open(r"file.txt", "r", encoding="utf-8") as f:
    # ['sue,Jason,\n', 'Eason,Forrest,\n', 'primary,middle,\n', 'high\n']
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【 operation 】 practice :

with open(r"file.txt", "r", encoding="utf-8") as file:
    lines = file.readlines()
    lines = [
        line.strip() + "---" + str(index + 1) + "\n"
        for index, line in enumerate(lines)

with open(r"file.txt", "w", encoding="utf-8") as file:
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Reading and writing binary files

The processing flow of binary file is consistent with that of text file . First, create a file object , However, it needs to be specified as binary mode , To create a binary object .

Example :

file = open(r"xxx.txt","wb") #  Can write 、 Rewrite the binary object of the schema 
file = open(r"xxx.txt","ab") #  Can write 、 Append mode binary object 
file = open(r"xxx.txt","rb") #  Readable binary object 
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After creation, you can still use write()、read() Read and write files

【 operation 】 Copy a binary file

with open(r"cat.gif", "rb") as f:  #  Binary file to copy 
    with open(r"copy_one.gif", "wb") as w:  #  The copied binary 
        for line in f.readlines():
print(" Copy end ")
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Common properties and methods of file objects

File objects encapsulate file related operations . The following example illustrates the common properties and methods

attribute :

attribute explain
name Returns the name of the file
mode Returns the open mode of the file
closed If the file is closed, return True

Open mode of file object :

Pattern explain
r Read instructions , If the file does not exist, an exception is thrown
w Write mode , If the file exists, the original
x Write mode , Create a new file , Throw an exception if the file exists
a Append mode , Do not overwrite the original contents of the file
b Binary mode ( Can be combined with other modes )
t Text mode ( Default , Omission )
+ Read write mode ( Can be combined with other modes )

Common methods of file objects :

file name explain
read([size]) Read from file size The contents of bytes or characters return . If you omit size Then read all
readline() Read a line from a text file
readlines() Take each line read from the text file as an independent string object , And put these objects in the list to return
write(str) The string str Content written to file
writelines(s) The string list s write file , Do not add line breaks
seek(offset[,whence]) Move the file pointer to a new location ,offset For whence The location of :
off To move towards the end , If it is negative, it moves in the starting direction
whence Different stands for different meanings :
0: Calculate from the file header ( The default value is )
1: From the current position
2: Calculate from the end of the file
tell() Returns the current location of the file pointer
flush() Write the contents of the buffer to the file , But do not close the file
close() Write the contents of the buffer to the file , Close the file at the same time , And release the file object
truncate([size]) Delete the contents from the current pointer position to the end of the file . If you specify size, Then no matter where the pointer is, only the front size Bytes , Delete the rest
writeable() Test whether the current file is writable
readable() Test whether the current file is readable

【 operation 】 test seek Methods and name、mode、closed attribute

with open(r"file.txt", "r", encoding="utf-8") as f:  #  Indexes  ---  The pointer 
    # e,---1
    # Jason,---2
    # Eason,---3
    # Forrest,---4
    # primary,---5
    # middle,---6
    # high,---7
    print(  # file.txt
    print(f.mode)  # r
    print(f.closed)  # False
print(f.closed)  # True
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【 operation 】 test truncate、flush Method

# -------------flush------------------
file = open(r"file.txt", "r", encoding="utf-8")
file.flush()  # write It's not written directly , The data will also be put into the buffer 

# ----------truncate--------------
f = open("file.txt", "a", encoding="utf-8")

f = open("file.txt", "r", encoding="utf-8")
# sue,---1
# Jason,
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pickle serialize

Python in , The essence of an object is a “ Memory block for storing data ” . When we need to save the data in the memory block to the hard disk , Or when transmitted to other computers through the network . We just need “ Serialization and deserialization of objects ”. The application of serialization mechanism in distributed system 、 On parallel systems .

It can realize the object in memory and the data format which is convenient to persist in disk or network (str、bites) Mutual conversion between . This mechanism is called serialization and serialization

serialize : The process of converting nonpersistent and transitive objects in memory into objects that can be persisted and transitioned easily .

Deserialization : The process of converting persistent and transitive objects to non persistent and transitive objects .

pickle Modular dumps()、dump()、loads()、load() A function can be divided into two groups according to its function : serialize :dumps()、dump() Deserialization :loads()、load()

Grammar format :

pickle.dump(obj,file)  # obj Is the object to be serialized ,file Refers to storing files 
pickle.load(file) #  from  file  Reading data , Anti serialization into objects .
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【 operation 】 Serialize the object into a file

import pickle
with open(r"file.txt", "wb") as f:
    name = "Dantes"
    age = 18
    arr = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]

    pickle.dump(name, f)
    pickle.dump(age, f)
    pickle.dump(arr, f)
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【 operation 】 Deserialize the obtained data

with open(r"file.txt", "rb") as f:
    a1 = pickle.load(f)
    a2 = pickle.load(f)
    a3 = pickle.load(f)
    print(a1) # Dantes
    print(a2) # 18
    print(a3) # [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]
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CSV File operations

CSV(Cooma Separated Values) Is the comma separator text format , Commonly used for data exchange 、Excel Import and export of file and database data . And Excel Different documents , stay CSV In file :

  • There is no type of value , All values are strings
  • Font color and style cannot be specified
  • You cannot specify the width and height of a cell , Can't merge cells
  • There are no multiple worksheets
  • You can't embed an image chart

Excel The form created in the form is :


Save as “csv” Format , The contents after opening are as follows :


CSV Read and write files

  1. CSV File reading

Remember to introduce... Before use csv package

import csv
with open(r"xxx.csv", "r") as f:
    after_read = csv.reader(f)
    # print(after_read) # <_csv.reader object at 0x000001B7C5F1DAC8>
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adopt csv.reader() Function to create an object that reads data

  1. CSV Writing files
a1 = [5, "jj", 21, "doctor"]
a2 = [6, "gg", 25, "runner"]
a3 = [7, "kk", 31, "player"]

with open(r"xxx.csv", "w") as f:
    write_csv = csv.writer(f)
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OS modular ()

OS Module allows us to control the operating system directly . Directly call the executable file of the operating system 、 command , Operation file 、 Directory etc. . It is the core foundation of system operation and maintenance

OS Call operating system files and commands

  • os.system system Function to convert a string into a command to run on the server ; The principle is that every system Function execution time , It creates a subprocess to execute the command line on the system , The execution result of a child process cannot affect the main process ;

【 operation 】 Open Notepad

import os
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【 operation 】 Calling system's ping command

# Pinging [] with 32 bytes of data:
# Request timed out. ...
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【 operation 】 open cmd and powershell

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  • os.startfile You can open the file according to the root directory of the file
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OS modular - File and directory operations

If you need to do other operations on files and directories , have access to os and os.path modular

os Common file operations of the module :

Method name describe
remove(path) Delete the specified file
rename(src,dest) Rename a file or directory
stat(path) Returns all properties of the file
listdir(path) return path List of files and directories under the directory

Use :

os.rename("./cat.gif", "rename_cat.gif")
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file_pro = os.stat("file.txt")
# os.stat_result(st_mode=33206, st_ino=3659174697668209, st_dev=1986293374, st_nlink=1, st_uid=0, st_gid=0, st_size=43, st_atime=1633682811, st_mtime=1633607574, st_ctime=1633508935)
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file_list = os.listdir("D:/")
# ['Basic-Study', 'Full-Stack-Study', 'hooks-app', 'Study-C And C++', 'Study-Deep-JavaScript', 'Study-JavaScript-Deeper', 'Study-Python', 'vue-manage-system-master', ' Homework ', ' Review documents ']
print(  # nt --> windows; linux&unix -->posix
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os Related methods of directory operation under module :

Method name describe
mkdir(path) Create directory
makedirs(path1/path2/...) Create multi-level directory
rmdir(path) Delete directory
removedirs(path1/path2/...) Delete multi-level directory
getcwd() Return to the current working directory :current work dir
chdir(path) hold path Set as current working directory
walk() Traverse directory tree
sep The path separator used by the current operating system

Use :

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os.path modular - Directory operation

os.path The module provides directory related information ( Path judgment 、 Path segmentation 、 Path link 、 Folder traversal ) The operation of

Method describe
isabs(path) Judge path Is it an absolute path
isdir(path) Judge path Is it a directory
sifile(path) Judge path Is it a document
exists(path) Judge whether the file in the specified path exists
getsize(filename) Return file size
abspath(path) Return to absolute path
dirname(path) Returns the path to the directory
getatime(filename) Returns the last access time of the file
getmtime(filename) Returns the last modification time of the file
walk(top,func,arg) Recursive method traverses the directory
join(path,*paths) Connect multiple path
split(path) Split the path , Return... As a list
splitext(path) Split the file extension from the path
print(os.path.isabs("file.txt"))  # False
print(os.path.isdir("file.txt"))  # False
print(os.path.isfile("file.txt"))  # True
print(os.path.exists("file.txt"))  # True
print(os.path.getsize("file.txt"))  # 43
# D:\\Study-Python\02.Python  Advanced \day02 - Python Advanced \code\file.txt
# d:\\Study-Python\02.Python  Advanced \day02 - Python Advanced \code
print(os.path.getatime("file.txt"))  # 1633682811.951791
print(os.path.getmtime("file.txt"))  # 1633607574.351463
# print(os.path.join())
print(os.path.split("file.txt"))  # ('', 'file.txt')
print(os.path.splitext("file.txt"))  # ('file', '.txt')
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walk() Recursively traverses all files

os.walk() Method :

Return to one 3 Tuples of elements .(dirpath,dirnames、filenames):

  • dirpath: List the path of the specified directory
  • dirnames: Catalog all your favorite folders
  • filenames: All the files in the directory

Used to output the file name in the directory by swimming away in the directory tree , Up or down . An easy-to-use file 、 Directory traverser , It can help us process files efficiently 、 About the catalogue .

walk() The syntax format of the method is as follows :

os.walk(top[, topdown=True[, onerror=None[, followlinks=False]]])
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Parameters :

  • top -- Is the address of the directory you want to traverse , Returns a triple (root,dirs,files).
    • root It refers to the address of the folder being traversed
    • dirs It's a list , The contents are the names of all the directories in the folder ( Exclude subdirectories )
    • files The same is list , The content is all the files in this folder ( Exclude subdirectories )
  • topdown -- Optional , by True, Then the priority traverses top Catalog , Otherwise, priority traversal top A subdirectory ( On by default ). If topdown Parameter is True,walk Can traverse top Folder , And top Every subdirectory in the folder .
  • onerror-- Optional , Need one callable object , When walk When exception is required , Would call .
  • followlinks -- Optional , If True, Will traverse the shortcut under the directory (linux Next is the soft connection symbolic link ) The actual Directory ( Off by default ), If False, Then the priority traverses top A subdirectory .

Use :

# os.makedirs("works/some/www")
path = os.getcwd()
# print(path)
file_lists = os.walk(path)
# print(list(file_lists))
for dirpaths, dirnames, filenames in file_lists:
    # print(dirpaths)
    # print(dirnames)
    # print(filenames)
    for dirP in dirnames:
        # print(dirP)
        print(os.path.join(dirpaths, dirP))

    for names in filenames:
        print(os.path.join(dirpaths, names))
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shutil modular ( Copy and compress )

shutil The module is python Provided in the standard library , Mainly for copying files and folders Move 、 Delete etc. ; You can also compress files and folders 、 Decompression operation .

os Module provides general operations on directories or files ,shutil Module as a supplement , Provides mobile 、 Copy 、 Compress 、 Decompression and other operations

Method describe
copyfileobj(src, dst) Cyclic reading old.txt File contents and write to new.txt The file of
shutil.copyfile(src, dct) From source src Copied to the dst In the middle . Of course, the premise is that the target address has writable permission . The exception information thrown is IOException. If the current dst If it already exists, it will be covered
shutil.copymode(src, dst) It will only copy its permissions, and other things will not be copied
shutil.copystat(src, dst) Copy permission 、 Last access time 、 Last modified
shutil.copy( src, dst) Copy a file to a file or a directory
shutil.copy2( src, dst) stay copy Based on the above, the last access time and modification time of the copied file are also copied , Be similar to cp –p Things that are
shutil.copy2( src, dst) If the file systems of the two locations are the same, it is equivalent to rename operation , It's just a change of name ; If it is not in the same file system, it is to do move operation
shutil.copytree( olddir, newdir, True/Flase) hold olddir Copy a newdir, If the first 3 The parameters are True, Then the symbolic connection under the folder will be maintained when copying the directory , If the first 3 The parameters are False, Physical copies will be generated in the replicated directory to replace symbolic connections
shutil.rmtree( src ) Recursively delete a directory and all contents in the directory
shutil.ignore_patterns(*patterns) Ignore which file , Selective copy
shutil.make_archive(base_name, format[, root_dir[, base_dir[, verbose[, dry_run[, owner[, group[, logger]]]]]]]) Create a zip and return the file path , for example :zip、tar

Use :

shutil.copyfileobj(src, dst):

shutil.copyfileobj(open("old.txt", "r"), open("new.txt", "w"))
os.system("cat old.txt new.txt")
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Must take open("xxxx","x") Open the file and write , Otherwise, the report will be wrong copyfileobj Method will only copy the contents of the file

shutil.copyfile(src, dct):

shutil.copyfile("old.txt", "new1.txt")
os.system("cat old.txt new.txt")
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From source src Copied to the dst In the middle . Of course, the premise is that the target address has writable permission . The exception information thrown is IOException. If the current dst If it already exists, it will be covered If there is a file, the contents of the file will be overwritten , Create if not

*shutil.copymode(src, dst, , follow_symlinks=True):

shutil.copymode("old.txt", "new1.txt")
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Copy only file permissions , The content of the document 、 Group 、 No change in users

*shutil.copystat(src, dst, , follow_symlinks=True):

shutil.copystat("old.txt", "new1.txt")
os.system("stat old.txt new.txt")
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Copy file status information , The file must exist , No copy Change the time


shutil.copy(src, dst, *, follow_symlinks=True):

shutil.copy("old.txt", "new2.txt")
os.system("stat old.txt new2.txt")
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Copy files and status information , Same no copy Change the time


shutil.copy("old.txt", "new2.txt")
os.system("stat old.txt new2.txt")
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Copy files and status information


shutil.copytree(src, dst, symlinks=False, ignore=None):

os.system("tree works")
os.system("tree works2")
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Copy folder recursively works2 Directory must not exist ,symlinks=True only copy Link to the file , If it is equal to False Just copy Source file ,ignore Equal to No copy A file or directory


shutil.rmtree(path, ignore_errors=False, onerror=None):

os.system("ls -d works2")
os.system("ls -d works2")  # ls: works2: No such file or directory
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shutil.move(src, dst, copy_function=copy2):

os.system("ls -ld works")
# drwxr-xr-x 3 SUe Administrators 0 Oct 8 17:59 works

shutil.move("works", "works2")

os.system("ls -ld works")
# ls: works: No such file or directory

os.system("ls -ld works2")
# drwxr-xr-x 3 SUe Administrators 0 Oct 8 17:59 works2
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Recursively remove files , It is similar to mv command , Actually, it's renaming


shutil.make_archive(base_name, format[, root_dir[, base_dir[, verbose[, dry_run[, owner[, group[, logger]]]]]]]):

base_name: Filename of the package , It can also be the path of the compressed package . When it's just a filename , Save to current directory , Otherwise save to the specified path , Such as : tar_name => Save to current path Such as :/Users/a6/tar_name => Save to /Users/a6/ format: Type of compression package ,“zip”, “tar”, “bztar”,“gztar” root_dir: Folder path to compress ( Default current directory ) owner: user , Default current user group: Group , Default current group logger: For logging , Usually logging.Logger object

zipFile modular ( decompression )

zipfile yes python It's used to make zip Format encoding compression and decompression , Because it is very common zip Format , Therefore, the frequency of using this module is also relatively high .

Common methods :

Method describe
is_zipfile( file ) test filename The file of , See if it works zipfile
ZipFile(filename[,mode[,compression[,allowZip64]]]) - filename: File object
- mode: Optional r、w、a Open style representing different documents ;r read-only ;w rewrite ;a add to
- compression: Point out that zipfile With what compression method , The default is :ZIP_STORED, Another option is :ZIP_DEFLATED
- allowZip64: It's a bool Type variable , When set to True It can be used to create a file with a size greater than 2G Of zip file , The default is :True
close() close zip file , You must write
extract(member,path=None,pwd=None) from zip Extract a file from
extractall(path[,pwd]) File as namelist From the current directory structure zip Extract it from and put it in the specified directory ; these two items. extract Of path If it doesn't exist, it will be created automatically , And this path It must be a directory , When decompressing, it must be a file , Including its relative zip All the directories of the package path are extracted together .
namelist() Return a list , The content is zip Of all the sub files in the file path( be relative to zip In terms of packages ). It's like a preserved one zip List of internal directory structures
infolist() Go back to a list , The content is every zip A file is a sub file ZipInfo object , This object has the fields mentioned above
printdir() take zip The directory structure of the file is printed to stdout On , Include... For each file path, Modification time and size
open(name[,mode[,pwd]]) Get the file object of a child file , It can be used to read,readline,write Operation, etc.
setpassword(psw) Set up zip The password of the file
testzip() Read zip All files in , Verify their CRC The checksum . Returns the name of the first corrupt file , If all the files are complete, return None
write(filename[,arcname[,compression_type]]) take zip External documents filename Write to a file named arcname In the sub file of ( Of course arcname Also with relative zip The path of the package is ),compression_type Specifies the compression format , It's also ZIP_STORED or ZIP_DEFLATED.z The way you open it must be w perhaps a To write to the file

Operation and use :

# zipFile  Use of modules 
import zipfile

# 1. is_zipfile  Check whether the file is a  zip  file 
print(zipfile.is_zipfile(""))  # True
print(zipfile.is_zipfile("works2"))  # False

# 2. ZipFile(filename[,mode[,compression[,allowZip64]]])
print(zipfile.ZipFile("", "r"))
# <zipfile.ZipFile filename='' mode='r'>

# 3. close()  Close file , There has to be... At the end 
z = zipfile.ZipFile("", "r")
print(z)  # <zipfile.ZipFile [closed]>

# 4. extract(member,path=None,pwd=None)  from  zip  Extract a file from 
print(z.extract("works2/s.txt", path=None, pwd=None))

# 5. extractall(path[,pwd])  File as  namelist  From the current directory structure  zip  Extract it from and put it in the specified directory 

# 6. namelist()  Return a list , The content is  zip  Of all the sub files in the file path
print(z.namelist())  # ['works2/', 'works2/some/', 'works2/some/www/']

# 7. infolist()  Return a list , The content is every  zip  A file is a sub file  ZipInfo  object 
# [<ZipInfo filename='works2/' external_attr=0x10>, <ZipInfo filename='works2/some/' external_attr=0x10>, <ZipInfo filename='works2/some/www/' external_attr=0x10>]

# 8. printdir()  take  zip  The directory structure of the file is printed to  stdout  On , It includes  path, Modification time and size 
# File Name Modified Size
# works2/ 2021-10-08 17:59:50 0
# works2/some/ 2021-10-08 17:59:50 0
# works2/some/www/ 2021-10-08 17:59:50 0

9. open(name[,mode[,pwd]]), Get the file object of a child file , It can be used to read、readline、write Wait for the operation 

# 10. setpassword(psw), Set up zip The password of the file 

# 11. testzip()  Read  zip  All documents in 
a = z.testzip()
print(a is None)

# 12. write(filename[,arcname[,compression_type]])  Write it to the file  zip  in 
z = zipfile.ZipFile("", "w")
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Some ways of using :

  1. Unzip the file and read
import zipfile

z = zipfile.ZipFile(filename, 'r') #  The second parameter here is r It means reading zip file ,w Is to create a zip file 

for f in z.namelist():
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  1. Compress into file and write
import zipfile, os

z = zipfile.ZipFile(filename, 'w') #  Note that the second parameter here is w, there filename Is the name of the compressed package 

# Suppose you want to call one testdir All the files in are added to the compressed package ( Only the files in the first level subdirectory are added here ):
if os.path.isdir(testdir):
    for d in os.listdir(testdir):
        z.write(testdir+os.sep+d)#os.sep Is the file separator "//"
# close()  Must be called !
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One click compression function :

#  Import the package needed for compression 
import zipfile
#  Import  os  modular 
import os
#  Import  os.path  modular 
import os.path

# 1.  Create a class 
class ZFile(object):
    # 2.  Initialization data  filename- file name ;mode- The way ;basedir- Absolute path 
    def __init__(self, filename, mode="r", basedir=""):
        self.filename = filename
        self.mode = mode
        #  If the writing method is  w- write in ,a- Additional 
        if self.mode in ("w", "a"):
            #  Read zip File and set 
            self.zfile = zipfile.ZipFile(filename,
            #  without , Default 
            self.zfile = zipfile.ZipFile(filename, self.mode)
        #  Absolute path 
        self.basedir = basedir
        #  If you don't write , Then use os.path.dirname Automatic completion 
        if not self.basedir:
            self.basedir = os.path.dirname(filename)

    #  Add a single file 
    def addfile(self, path, arcname=None):
        #  Path removal  // , /
        path = path.replace("//", "/")
        if not arcname:
            if path.startswith(self.basedir):
                arcname = path[len(self.basedir):]
                arcname = ''
        self.zfile.write(path, arcname)

    #  Whether to add multiple files 
    def addfiles(self, paths):
        for path in paths:
            if isinstance(path, tuple):

    #  close 
    def close(self):

    def extract_to(self, path):
        for p in self.zfile.namelist():
            self.extract(p, path)

    def extract(self, filename, path):
        if not filename.endswith("/"):
            f = os.path.join(path, filename)
            dir = os.path.dirname(f)
            if not os.path.exists(dir):
            self.zfile(f, "wb").write(

def create(zfile, files):
    z = ZFile(zfile, 'w')

def extract(zfile, path):
    z = ZFile(zfile)
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Principle of recursive algorithm

recursive , Is a common way to solve problems , That is to simplify the problem gradually .

The idea is “ Call yourself ” A method using recursive technology will call itself directly or indirectly .

The recursive structure is divided into two parts :

  • ** Define recursive headers :** Without a head, you will enter a dead cycle , This is also the end condition of recursion
  • ** Recursive body :** Call your own method

【 operation 】 seek n!

def factorial(n):
    if n == 1:
        return n
        return n * factorial(n - 1)

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【 operation 】 Output directory tree

import os

allFiles = []

def get_all_files(path, level):
    childFiles = os.listdir(path)
    for file in childFiles:
        filepath = os.path.join(path, file)
        if os.path.isdir(filepath):
            get_all_files(filepath, level + 1)
        allFiles.append("\t" * level + filepath)

get_all_files("works2", 0)
for f in reversed(allFiles):
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copyright notice
author[Sue_ fifty-two],Please bring the original link to reprint, thank you.

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