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Introduction to Python - CONDA common commands

2022-01-30 06:25:52 Why

This paper introduces the use of conda management anaconda Python Environment related commands .

conda Environment related commands

Create an environment

conda create -n env_name python=3.7 --clone another_env
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-n:name Indicates the name of the new environment

python: Use python edition

--clone: Copy from existing environment

Delete environment

conda remove -n env_name --all
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Look at the environment

conda env list 
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or

conda info -e
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Activate the environment

conda activate env_name
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or

source activate env_name
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Out of the environment

conda deactivate
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or

source deactivate
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Will return to base Environmental Science

conda Package related commands

View the current environment conda Managed python Package list

conda list
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install python package

conda install package_name # Installation package 
conda install package_name_1 package_name_2 package_name_3 ... # Install multiple packages at a time 
conda install package_name=1.1.0 # Install the specified version of the package 
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Update package

conda update package_name #  Update package 
conda upgrade --all # Update all packages 
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Uninstall package

conda remove package_name
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Search for packages with unclear names

conda search search_term
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conda Recreate the environment

Use conda management python An important consideration is portability ,conda Several methods are provided for reproducing a conda Environmental Science .

Clone

This command has been described above , Used to reproduce an environment locally

conda create --name new_env --clone old_env
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Spec List

Copy the environment between computers with the same operating system , Can generate spec list

#  Generate  spec list  file 
conda list --explicit > spec-list.txt 
# Recreate the environment :
conda create --name python-course --file spec-list.txt
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Environment.yml

Use -export Option to generate a environment.yml file , To replicate the project environment between different platforms and operating systems .

spec list Document and environment.yml The difference between files is : environment.yml Files are not specific to a particular operating system , And use YAML Format .environment.yml Only the package name is listed , from conda Build the environment based on the name of the package . Another difference is -export It also includes the use of pip Installed packages , and spec list There is no .

# export  environment.yml  file :
conda env export > environment.yml
# Recreate the environment :
conda env create -f environment.yml
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Be careful : If the current path already has environment.yml file ,conda Will rewrite this file

Conda Pack

The above two reproduction methods are based on recording the current environment package information , To the idea of new machine reconstruction . and Conda Pack It is used to package the files of the current environment directly , The idea of unpacking the new machine .

conda-pack Specify the platform and operating system , The target computer must have the same platform and operating system as the source computer .

install conda pack

# from conda
conda install -c conda-forge conda-pack
# from pip
pip install conda-pack
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Packaging environment

conda pack -n my_env
conda pack -n my_env -o out_name.tar.gz
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Recreate the environment

mkdir -p path_to_my_new_env #  Advice on anaconda Of envs In the folder 
tar -xzf my_env.tar.gz -C path_to_my_new_env #  Unzip the files in the package 
source path_to_my_new_env/bin/activate #  Activate the environment 
(my_env) $ python #  Let's take a look at  python  Then exit 
(my_env) $ conda-unpack #  Very important , Please don't ignore 
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